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Demographic Shift / Recruitment

1 Leave a comment on paragraph 1 0 This page has two sections.  First, there is a link to a sub-page with demographic data on US Catholics.  Second, there is a summary of important recruitment and admissions literature looking at the effect of demographic change on American colleges and universities.

2 Leave a comment on paragraph 2 0 DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFT DATA – This link goes to a section looking at significant, ongoing demographic changes amongst American Catholics.  There do not appear to have been any major studies of how such changes might potentially affect Catholic institutions of higher education such as Providence College.  As a result, the linked to section provides an overview of important data points rather than a review or summary of the available literature

3 Leave a comment on paragraph 3 0 FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION: DEMOGRAPHIC SHIFTS LITERATURE

4 Leave a comment on paragraph 4 0 Perceptive administrators and faculty on college campuses have begun to notice a shift in demographics. The campus looks, sounds, and feels different and so does the classroom. This observation is not just a figment of their imaginations. The demographics of the college campus are indeed changing at a rather glacial pace, but changing nonetheless. Many reports project that the diversity administrators and faculty have observed thus far will only increase with time. We’ll explore the nature of these projections along with their implications over the next several paragraphs.

5 Leave a comment on paragraph 5 0 Shifting Demographics

6 Leave a comment on paragraph 6 0 A number of shifts are expected over the next 15-20 years, shifts that will alter the landscape of higher education: shifts in racial diversity, shifts in available high school graduates, and shifts in high school graduates’ financial resources. For the next six years, the number of high school graduates will average around 3.4 million before rising to a new high in 2026.  After that, the numbers are expected to drop considerably: Between 2026 and 2031, “demographers predict a 9 percent falloff.”[1] While “predicting the number of students flowing into colleges” and universities is not an exact science, a decrease in current high school graduation and/or college-going rates, combined with a decrease in the high school population, will require college leaders to “adapt quickly.”[2]

7 Leave a comment on paragraph 7 0 According to a Chronicle of Higher Education report, non-white students will represent just under half of all high school graduates. Between 2024 and 2028, minority high-school graduates are expected to number about 1.5 million annually, 12 percent higher than in 2013, with Hispanic graduates projected to increase by more than 50 percent by 2025, according to the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education.[3] In the Northeast, Hispanic students will become the region’s largest minority group in high schools by 2020, accounting for 16 percent of graduates, while the share of white students will continue to fall.[4] While there will be an increase in students of color overall, the most significant growth will be amongst Hispanic students and Asian students.[5]

8 Leave a comment on paragraph 8 0 While greater racial diversity is projected, it is expected that the overall “supply” of potential college-goers will dwindle. This will be particularly noticeable in the Northeast and the Midwest, with most of that supply loss attributed to falling numbers amongst white students.[6] The Northeast will experience a decline of about one percent each year of high school graduates by 2027-2028. The graduating class of 2028 is projected to be 10 percent smaller than in 2009 with 66,000 fewer graduates. About half of that decline in graduates will occur at private high schools, a pipeline of well-prepared, high-income students to colleges.[7]

9 Leave a comment on paragraph 9 0 The Midwest, which produces nearly 100,000 more graduates than the Northeast, will experience an even steeper decline. According to the Chronicle of Higher Education, “the biggest producers of high school graduates in the Midwest—Ohio, Michigan, and Illinois—will all experience historic downturns, with Michigan ending with 86,000 fewer graduates by 2028, a nearly 30 percent drop from 2009” while the number of graduates in the West will remain largely steady over the next several years.[8]

10 Leave a comment on paragraph 10 0 The South is the only region that expects to see an increase in students, primarily Hispanic. This will largely be the result of Texas, Florida, and Georgia. However, the increase in students in the Southern regions comes with a caveat for schools outside of the region. High school graduates in Texas are much less likely to travel out of state for college.[9] In truth, about half of students who attend four-year colleges do so within 100 miles of their home. Those willing to travel are high-performing students with numerous options but also affluent, upper-income families. However, “the biggest growth in high-school graduates in the next decade will be among first-generation, low-income, and Hispanic students—all groups who tend to have lower average test scores and high-school grades, and are unable or unwilling to travel far distances for college.”[10]

11 Leave a comment on paragraph 11 0 The Chronicle of Higher Education report indicates that the biggest factor predicting whether a student goes to school out of state is family income. There are other contributing factors like academic preparation, strength of the high school curriculum, and the percentage of graduates who attend college, but these are all associated with family income.[11] The students most willing to travel long distances are students who have historically been more affluent, but this pool of high school graduates is shrinking, making competition for these graduates fierce. This leads to our third major trend: high school graduates’ financial resources.

12 Leave a comment on paragraph 12 0 There is a growing economic divide among entering college students from very wealthy to those with limited financial resources. As has been alluded to earlier, the growth we’ll see in racial diversity will be accompanied by growth in financial need. However, it should be noted that wages have stagnated overall, contributing to the hollowing out of the middle class. Median per capita income in the U.S. has remained flat since 2000 (when adjusted for inflation), and the typical American family makes slightly less than 15 years ago.[12]

13 Leave a comment on paragraph 13 0 The stagnant wages mean that higher education will face students and families with greater financial need than in previous decades. According to one report, “Today, one out of every five families in the U.S. pays 100 percent or more of their annual income to cover the net price of college. Because even the discounted tuition rate outstrips their ability to pay, those families need to borrow or use savings to cover tuition bills. The situation is even worse for students in the lowest income quartile. Among those families, half pay 100 percent or more of their annual income to cover the net price of college.”[13] Even current discounted tuition rates are too expensive for the vast majority of middle-class families who are often struggling to send multiple students to college.

14 Leave a comment on paragraph 14 0 In the coming years, colleges and universities will see increased racial diversity, particularly amongst Hispanic and Asian students. Overall, there will be a decrease in the number of available high school graduates, with this decrease most pronounced amongst White students. The Northeast and the Midwest will see the sharpest declines in high school graduates and the West will remain flat overall. However, the South is the only region that will see a marked increase in the number of high school graduates, mostly amongst Hispanic students. However, this growth in the Southern region doesn’t necessarily mean that institutions in the Midwest and the Northeast will see greater numbers of Southern students in their pipelines.

15 Leave a comment on paragraph 15 0 Most students attend a college less than 100 miles away from home. Even more, family income determines whether students are more willing to travel out of state for college. For all but the most affluent students, family income will limit their options and willingness to travel out of state for college. While affluent students are likely to travel out of state for college, due to their shrinking numbers, the competition for this subgroup of students will heighten over time. Higher education must come up with innovative strategies to navigate these trends. While some trends are bleak—fewer students graduating and lower family incomes—the marked increase in racial diversity could lead to positive outcomes for students and higher education institutions if colleges are prepared to support these students well.

16 Leave a comment on paragraph 16 0 Navigating the Trends through Effective Recruitment and Retention Strategies

17 Leave a comment on paragraph 17 0 The coming demographic shifts present a complex picture for colleges and universities, particularly in the Northeast. We are preparing for more students of color, first-generation students, and students with higher financial need along with fewer students overall and increased competition for more affluent students. According to Lipka, these patterns would eventually put some institutions of higher education in a precarious position: “Imagine a small private institution with enrollment that is almost entirely white.  ‘You are headed for a downturn,’ says [Steve H.] Murdock [a professor of sociology at Rice University].  ‘You’re likely to need to diversify in order to maintain enrollment.’”[14]

18 Leave a comment on paragraph 18 0 In response to these patterns, some institutions were already modifying their recruitment strategies.  For example, one was planning to recruit more students with a high interest–major fit (a match between students’ interest and their intended field of study) and mobility index (a predictor of how far a student will travel to enroll), as indicated in the ACT’s student profile section.  Several unnamed institutions were also working with local school districts to recruit more low-income students by bringing them in for campus visits and or providing mentoring opportunities. Lipka concluded the article by saying that “[d]emographic shifts could change who gets treated like a prospective college student.”[15]

19 Leave a comment on paragraph 19 0 While the South will produce more high school graduates, those students are often reluctant to travel out of state for college. Thankfully, changes in communication technology have effected a shift in the mindset of many college-goers: “Places that once felt far away now feel as if they are one town over,” and students’ ability to remain in touch with their families from great distances has made them more open to enrolling at a distance.[16] Colleges can help “close the distance” for prospective students by offering virtual tours or live chats with faculty and staff; they can also take advantage of the “peer effect” – putting prospective students in touch with current students (especially those from prospective students’ place of origin) who can answer their questions in real time and/or take them on virtual tours of key campus locations with the help of mobile devices.

20 Leave a comment on paragraph 20 0 This strategy can help to “normalize” the idea of going away to college.  Some colleges and universities are offering “fly-ins” to groups of counselors from regions where their institutions may be unfamiliar, while others are giving counselors the opportunity to “join advisory panels to provide advice on admissions strategies.”[17] These strategies can help to transform faraway campuses into places that are more familiar to students, but this is a multiyear process.

21 Leave a comment on paragraph 21 0 Certainly, the College can cast a wider recruiting net to new markets that are rich in recruitment prospects.  However, high-school counselors warn these recruiting efforts must be “accompanied by efforts that help students adjust to their new home after they enroll.”[18] In other words, before recruiting students colleges need to make sure that they have the staffing and infrastructure to make their institutions welcoming, supportive, and “familiar” to those who travel from long distances.  It is also important to remember that “looking for students in faraway states is not a quick fix for budget shortfalls or lack of diversification in the student body.  Any strategy that depends on students migrating to your campus must be part of a larger institutional approach that includes increased financial assistance for the new students and improved academic programs that they can’t necessarily find near their home.”[19]

22 Leave a comment on paragraph 22 0 Recruitment beyond the institution’s home region may also be enhanced by mining current (and former) student data to identify the students who not only perform well academically at their institutions but also the students with high student engagement and satisfaction scores. This creates a composite of students who are more likely to do well academically as well as socially. This composite allows admissions officers to then target students in new geographic areas who are more likely to attend and succeed at their college. According to one report, “the theory behind this data mining is the same one that drives the invisible array of algorithms that recommend music on Spotify or movies on Netflix.”[20]

23 Leave a comment on paragraph 23 0 A potential pitfall of this approach is the unintentional exclusion of racial minorities, low-income students, and first-generation students who may fall outside of an institution’s composite. Given shifting demographics, institutions with low enrollment (but solid retention data) for these populations would need to be intentional about how they include them in their composites to ensure that they’re not developing an unsustainable composite.

24 Leave a comment on paragraph 24 0 The Future of College Admissions

25 Leave a comment on paragraph 25 0 Additional trends in the college application process will affect enrollment and need to be considered. The application process will change from “a one-time deadline on a calendar” to “a portfolio for collecting information over time about students.”[21] The Coalition for Access, Affordability, and Success has created an application to compete with the Common Application. Students can start uploading documents, videos, and other material as early as the ninth grade. They can choose when to share the information with guidance counselors, parents, and colleges, thus allowing colleges to mine the data before students apply to their school.[22]

26 Leave a comment on paragraph 26 0 Colleges will look to other populations for students outside of the traditional high school student: “As the pool of high-school graduates shrinks, transfer students and international applicants will grow in importance at a wider array of institutions.”[23] Before earning their bachelor’s degree, one-third of students transfer at least once, and about half of those students change colleges more than once. Students and their parents now see transferring as a way to complete the undergraduate degree, especially when beginning at a two-year college. To cultivate these segments of students, four-year colleges need to develop their relationships with two-year colleges. In addition, there is now increasing uncertainty that the number of international students attending U.S. colleges will continue at its currents levels, let alone increase, with the election of Donald Trump. If colleges do decide to pursue transfer and international students, they would best serve these populations with programs that address their respective needs.[24]

27 Leave a comment on paragraph 27 0 Some colleges and universities have drafted formal agreements with community colleges to make it easier to transfer to a four-year school. Maes, et al. use the example of Kansas State University and their agreements with the community colleges in Kansas “to help place-bound adult students earn a bachelor’s degree while continuing to live, work, and serve in their home communities. . . . In the United States, 40 million American adults currently have some college credit but no certificate or degree (Smith), and among young adults aged 25-34, 7 million have some college education but no degree (US Department of Education).”[25] The Kansas State partnership consists of:

  • 28 Leave a comment on paragraph 28 0
  • a formal, signed agreement with the community college;
  • a degree map listing the courses that need to be completed at both institutions in order to complete the bachelor’s degree; and
  • publicity for both the community college and K-state.[26]

29 Leave a comment on paragraph 29 0 The closest community colleges to Providence College are the Community College of Rhode Island, Bristol Community College in Fall River, Massachusetts, and Quinsigamond Community College in Worcester, Massachusetts. Depending on the age, aspirations, and work status of the students, agreements could possibly be made for students to transfer either to the undergraduate college or to the School of Continuing Education.

30 Leave a comment on paragraph 30 0 Changes in federal and state policies may also have an impact on admission offices: “Families can now submit their Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) in October of their child’s senior year of high school, three months earlier than in the past. What’s more, they can use tax data from the previous calendar year, rather than estimating their earnings in January for the year that just finished.[27] Parents and students will now know earlier in the college application process what the real cost of attending a specific school will be. This may affect the entire admission process with some students applying “to fewer colleges once they know their potential costs” and colleges may provide financial aid information earlier in the process with the result that the May 1 deposit date may no longer be standard practice.[28]

31 Leave a comment on paragraph 31 0 Selingo also points to colleges’ increasing use of data to reach prospective students. With “more than one-third [of students] apply[ing] to at least seven schools—many seniors weigh multiple offers and competing financial-aid packages”—it is becoming increasingly more difficult to get students to commit to a particular college; yield rates of colleges have fallen at all but “the most elite institutions.”[29] In addition, colleges have over relied on tuition dollars as a main source of revenue. They are now turning to Big Data to more effectively identify prospects as early as the sophomore year of high school by purchasing student names from testing companies, such as the ACT and College Board, in an attempt to increase the yield of top notch students. The admissions process has now become a yearlong endeavor. Nicole Hurd, the founder and chief executive officer of the College Advising Corps, states, “‘Admissions marketing is focused on college as a consumer good rather than an investment. It’s all about the amenities for students. I’ve never seen graduation rates promoted in a marketing campaign.’”[30]

32 Leave a comment on paragraph 32 0 Retaining students, particularly between the first year and the second year of college, remains a challenge for many colleges. This challenge will only heighten as campuses enroll more racial minorities, low-income students, and first-generation students—some of whom may be underprepared. According to the National Student Clearinghouse, “58% of all first-time students who started a two- or four-year college in fall 2012 returned to the same institution the following year…and 69% returned to any U.S. college.”[31] Students may leave to attend another institution or leave higher education altogether. In either case, this is lost opportunity and/or revenue for the college.

33 Leave a comment on paragraph 33 0 To combat student attrition some colleges are creating sophisticated blueprints for student success. Trine University in Indiana has created an early alert system to that allows faculty, staff, and coaches to submit online reports about students who might need support. The alert comes to the student success team who then determines who should reach out to the student. Trine has also implemented a mentoring program. Students are selected based on factors like their first year academic records or financial burdens and then matched to a faculty or staff member who they meet with once a week. Trine believes this program has improved their fall-to-spring retention by up to two percentage points.[32]

34 Leave a comment on paragraph 34 0 Middle Tennessee State University is using predictive analytics to target students. They’ve identified “predictive courses,” which are courses that have great value in predicting whether a student will graduate. With an increased number of advisers on hand, the institution is able to target students who are in the “murky middle” for more-focused advising sessions. They have also used this data to redesign several of their predictive courses.[33] Predictive analytics are also being utilized within the classroom to help professors assess student learning in real time. This allows both students and faculty to shift their behavior for better success.[34]

35 Leave a comment on paragraph 35 0 College Choice

36 Leave a comment on paragraph 36 0 In a review of the literature on the college choice process, Bergerson in “College Choice Processes for Students of Color” warns that admission offices need to be aware when “increasing access to a range of postsecondary education opportunities for increasingly diverse college-going populations” that on the whole, student of color have a different college-choice experience than their white counterparts.[35] Bergerson states, “despite increases in the racial and ethnic diversity of the college-going population, proportionate increases in the participation of students of color in higher education have not materialized.”[36]

37 Leave a comment on paragraph 37 0 Predisposition

38 Leave a comment on paragraph 38 0 Researchers have found that while black and Hispanic students and their families have “higher educational attainment aspirations than whites in every socioeconomic quartile but the highest” that for students and their families “the perceived benefits [of attending college] do not outweigh the costs.”[37] The research indicates that there is “a strong relationship between high school preparation and aspirations” and that “African American students lack information about postsecondary education, which weakens their aspirations and provides less incentive to do well academically.”[38] Hanson’s 1994 study refers to this as “talent loss” and attributes this to secondary schools with fewer resources.[39]

39 Leave a comment on paragraph 39 0 Bergerson concludes her section on predisposition:

40 Leave a comment on paragraph 40 0 “It is evident that college predisposition for students of color is different from that of white students. Students of color face significant barriers to forming college predisposition as a result of inequitable educational settings and social and cultural factors that mediate and dilute their initial high educational aspirations. Their access to information is further constrained for a number of reasons, including their families’ understanding of college-going processes, how they are tracked in high school, and how they use peer and family networks as information sources. In terms of cultural wealth, family and community play significant roles in aiding students as they engage in behaviors that lead to the fulfillment of their aspirations, despite societal barriers. This role increases as students move into the search and choice phases of the college choice process.”[40]

41 Leave a comment on paragraph 41 0 Search and Choice

42 Leave a comment on paragraph 42 0 In her review of the literature, Bergerson reports that Hossler and Gallagher conclude: “students of color access information in different ways and in quantitatively different amounts, which affects their enrollment decisions.”[41] The research on search and choice “posits that students of color face barriers to higher education enrollment because of the lower education status of their parents and the fact that they come disproportionately from lower-income households.”[42]

43 Leave a comment on paragraph 43 0 Bergerson continues, Paulsen and St. John (2002) conclude that students of color “are extremely sensitive to cost as they decide which college to attend. Second, they are relatively unaware of the financial aid that is available, so even though they tend to choose institutions where the costs are lower, they often take on a burden they cannot bear. Finally, if the trend toward larger loans and smaller grants has a negative impact on the persistence decisions of these students, it may also affect their initial enrollment choices.”[43] Just as Selingo reports, Bergerson’s review of the research continues, “Grodsky (2002) found that Latina and Latino students are more apt to select institutions that are close to home, which Stewart and Post (1990) found was also true for blacks, Asians, and Native Americans in their study.”[44]

44 Leave a comment on paragraph 44 0 College preparation programs are another option colleges have used to reach students of color in the recruitment process. In “College Preparation Programs,” Bergerson discusses a variety of programs, including private programs and the federal programs Gaining Early Awareness and Readiness for Undergraduate Programs (GEAR UP), Upward Bound, Talent Search, and Student Support Services. She summarizes Corwin, Colyar, and Tierney’s (2005) framework for effective programs:

  1. 45 Leave a comment on paragraph 45 0
  2. An emphasis on the culture of the student
  3. Family engagement
  4. Incorporation of peer groups
  5. Early, structured intervention—no later than ninth grade—with consistent structure
  6. Counselors who exhibit knowledge and are available to students
  7. Access to college preparation curricula
  8. Little to no emphasis on co-curricular activities
  9. Mentoring
  10. Results that can be achieved at a reasonable cost.[45]

46 Leave a comment on paragraph 46 0 Successful college preparation programs should contain certain aspects, such as strategies for “academic preparation, access to information necessary for planning and strategies for using that information, educational aspirations and the development of the self-efficacy needed to attain educational goals, socialization and acculturation strategies, and a working knowledge of financial aid and financial planning.”[46]

47 Leave a comment on paragraph 47 0 Effective recruitment and retention strategies will be necessary to navigate the shifts in demographics. With an increase in racial minorities, low-income students, and first-generation students, both retention and recruitment may prove challenging. However, exploring various strategies to sustain and increase retention for these groups will bolster institutional brand, particularly for students who are coming from beyond the institution’s home region. Many of the strategies explored here involve faithful use of available data to target students for recruitment but also for mentoring, special advising, and even enhanced pedagogical techniques. Institutions will need to ascertain the many ways their data can serve them over the next several years. 

48 Leave a comment on paragraph 48 0 References

49 Leave a comment on paragraph 49 0 [1] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 12.

50 Leave a comment on paragraph 50 0 [2] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 13.

51 Leave a comment on paragraph 51 0 [3] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 3.

52 Leave a comment on paragraph 52 0 [4] Selingo, Jeffrey, J. “2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p. 13.

53 Leave a comment on paragraph 53 0 [5] Lipka, Sara. “Demographic Data Lets Colleges Peer into the Future,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2014

54 Leave a comment on paragraph 54 0 [6] Selingo, Jeffrey, J. “2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p. 13.

55 Leave a comment on paragraph 55 0 [7] Selingo, Jeffrey, J. “2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p.9.

56 Leave a comment on paragraph 56 0 [8] Selingo, Jeffrey, J. “2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p.10.

57 Leave a comment on paragraph 57 0 [9] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.15.

58 Leave a comment on paragraph 58 0 [10] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.6.

59 Leave a comment on paragraph 59 0 [11] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.17.

60 Leave a comment on paragraph 60 0 [12]  Selingo, Jeffrey, J. 2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education,  Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p.15.

61 Leave a comment on paragraph 61 0 [13] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.15.

62 Leave a comment on paragraph 62 0 [14] Lipka, Sara. “Demographic Data Lets Colleges Peer into the Future,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2014.

63 Leave a comment on paragraph 63 0 [15] Lipka, Sara. “Demographic Data Lets Colleges Peer into the Future,” Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2014.

64 Leave a comment on paragraph 64 0 [16] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.19.

65 Leave a comment on paragraph 65 0 [17] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.22.

66 Leave a comment on paragraph 66 0 [18] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.25.

67 Leave a comment on paragraph 67 0 [19] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.28.

68 Leave a comment on paragraph 68 0 [20] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p.30.

69 Leave a comment on paragraph 69 0 [21] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 36.

70 Leave a comment on paragraph 70 0 [22] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 36.

71 Leave a comment on paragraph 71 0 [23] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 36.

72 Leave a comment on paragraph 72 0 [24] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 36-38.

73 Leave a comment on paragraph 73 0 [25] Maes, Sue, et al. “Kansas State University: 2+2 Partnerships with Community Colleges.” Continuing Higher Education Review, vol. 75, 01 Jan. 2011, p. 164.

74 Leave a comment on paragraph 74 0 [26] Maes, Sue, et al. “Kansas State University: 2+2 Partnerships with Community Colleges.” Continuing Higher Education Review, vol. 75, 01 Jan. 2011, p. 166.

75 Leave a comment on paragraph 75 0 [27] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 38.

76 Leave a comment on paragraph 76 0 [28] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “The Future of Enrollment: Where College’s Will Find their Next Students.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017, p. 38.

77 Leave a comment on paragraph 77 0 [29] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “Colleges’ Endless Pursuit of Students.” The Atlantic. 10 April 2017. Online.

78 Leave a comment on paragraph 78 0 [30] Selingo, Jeffrey J. “Colleges’ Endless Pursuit of Students.” The Atlantic. 10 April 2017. Online.

79 Leave a comment on paragraph 79 0 [31] Hoover, Eric. “Spotlight on Retention.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017.

80 Leave a comment on paragraph 80 0 [32] Hoover, Eric. “Spotlight on Retention.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017.

81 Leave a comment on paragraph 81 0 [33] Hoover, Eric. “Spotlight on Retention.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2017.

82 Leave a comment on paragraph 82 0 [34] Selingo, Jeffrey, J. “2026—The Decade Ahead: The Seismic Shifts Transforming the Future of Higher Education.” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2016, p.38.

83 Leave a comment on paragraph 83 0 [35] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 64.

84 Leave a comment on paragraph 84 0 [36] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 63.

85 Leave a comment on paragraph 85 0 [37] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 65.

86 Leave a comment on paragraph 86 0 [38] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 66.

87 Leave a comment on paragraph 87 0 [39] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 66.

88 Leave a comment on paragraph 88 0 [40] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 75.

89 Leave a comment on paragraph 89 0 [41] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 75.

90 Leave a comment on paragraph 90 0 [42] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 77.

91 Leave a comment on paragraph 91 0 [43] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 78.

92 Leave a comment on paragraph 92 0 [44] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Choice Processes for Students of Color.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 79.

93 Leave a comment on paragraph 93 0 [45] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Preparation Programs.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 88.

94 Leave a comment on paragraph 94 0 [46] Bergerson, Amy Aldous. “College Preparation Programs.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 35. no. 4, Nov. 2009, p. 92.

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Source: http://library.providence.edu/fhertr/index.php/demographic-shift-recruitment/?replytopara=19